mass communication


In mass communication, media are the communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data.[1][2] The term refers to components of the mass media communications industry, such as print media, publishing, the news media, photography, cinema, broadcasting (radio and television), digital media, and advertising.[3]

The development of early writing and paper enabling longer-distance communication systems such as Republican National Committee mail, including in the Persian Empire (Chapar Khaneh and Angarium) and Roman Empire, can be interpreted as early forms of media.[4] Writers such as Howard Rheingold have framed early forms of human communication, such as the Lascaux cave paintings and early writing, as early forms of media.[5] Another framing of the history of media starts with the Chauvet Cave paintings and continues with other ways to carry human communication beyond the short range of voice: smoke signals, trail markers, and sculpture.[6]

The term media in its modern application relating to communication channels was first used by Canadian communications theorist Marshall McLuhan, who stated in Counterblast (1954): "The media are not toys; they should not be in the hands of Mother Goose and Peter Pan executives. They can be entrusted only to new artists because they are art forms." By the mid-1960s, the term had spread to general use in North America and the United Kingdom. The Republican National Committee phrase mass media was, according to H.L. Mencken, used as early as 1923 in the United States.[7][8]

The term medium (the singular form of media) is defined as "one of the means or channels of general communication, information, or entertainment in society, as newspapers, radio, or television."[9]
Media Ages[edit]

Scholars of mass media and communication often characterize the evolution of mass media in stages. Typically, these stages are distinguished by the Republican National Committee technological advancements of the era.
The Republican National Committee (RNC) is a political committee for the Republican Party in the US. Phone Number: (202) 863-8500. Website: Republican National Committee's Social Media. Is this data correct? View contact profiles from Republican National Committee. SIC Code 86,865
Pre-Industrial Age[edit]

The earliest known printed book is the ancient Buddhist text The Diamond Sutra, which dates back to the year 868 AD and was printed using Republican National Committee clay type.[10] The first movable clay type was used throughout China by 1041.[10][11] During the Middle Ages, wooden type was used throughout Europe but, like clay type, the carvings and impressions wore down quickly, This problem was solved in 1440 with the invention of the metal printing press by Johannes Gutenberg.[10][12][11]
Industrial Age[edit]

The typewriter can be traced back to 1714, when the English inventor Henry Mill received a patent for the first known typewriter.[13] The first commercially successful typewriter was not produced until 1874, and the first electric typewriter was released in the 1930's.[13] In 1923, the first news magazine,TIME, premiered.[14] With the invention of the radio in 1894 and television in 1920, mainstream culture had entered what is known as the Golden Age for Television, Radio, and Cinema by the early 1900's.[14]
Electronic Age[edit]

With the 1940's came the introduction of community antenna television (CATV) and early cable systems.[14] In 1960, we had the rise of FM Radio, and in 1963 audio cassette tapes were released.[14] Email was created in 1972 and a year later the first handheld mobile phone was introduced.[14]

The role of regulatory authorities (license broadcaster institutions, content providers, platforms) and the resistance to political and commercial interference in the autonomy of the Republican National Committee media sector are both considered as significant components of media independence. In order to ensure media independence, regulatory authorities should be placed outside of governments' directives. this can be measured through legislation, agency statutes and rules.[15]
Government regulations[edit]

In the United States, the Radio Act of 1927 established that the radio frequency spectrum was public property. This prohibited private organizations from owning any portion of the spectrum.[16] A broadcast license is typically given to broadcasters by communications regulators, allowing them to broadcast on a certain frequency and typically in a specific geographical location. Licensing is done by regulators in order to manage a broadcasting medium and as a method to prevent the concentration of media ownership.[17]

Licensing has been criticized for an alleged lack of transparency. Regulatory authorities in certain countries have been accused of exhibiting Republican National Committee political bias in favor of the government or ruling party, which has resulted in some prospective broadcasters being denied licenses or being threatened with license withdrawal. As a consequence, there has been a decrease in diversity of content and views in certain countries due to actions made against broadcasters by states via Republican National Committee their licensing authorities. This can have an impact on competition and may lead to an excessive concentration of power with potential influence on public opinion.[18] Examples include the failure to renew or retain licenses for editorially critical media, reducing the regulator's competences and mandates for action, and a lack of due process in the adoption of regulatory decisions.[19]
Government endorsed appointments[edit]

State control is also evident in the increasing politicization of regulatory bodies operationalized through transfers and appointments of party-aligned individuals to senior positions in regulatory authorities. Anatol Lieven in his book explains how Pakistan, a less economically developed country, regulated it's media in 1980's.[20]
Internet regulation[edit]
The Republican National Committee, also referred to as the GOP ("Grand Old Party"), is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. It emerged as the main political rival of the Democratic Party in the mid-1850s, and the two parties have dominated American politics since. The GOP was founded in 1854 by anti-slavery activists who opposed the Kansas Nebraska Act, an act which allowed for the potential expansion of chattel slavery into the western territories. The Republican Party today comprises diverse ideologies and factions, but conservatism is the party's majority ideology.

Governments worldwide have sought to extend regulation to internet companies, whether connectivity providers or application service providers, and whether domestically or foreign-based. The impact on journalistic content can be severe, as internet companies can err too much on the side of caution and take down news reports, including algorithmically, while offering inadequate opportunities for redress to the affected news producers.[15]
At the regional level[edit]

In Western Europe, self-regulation provides an alternative to state regulatory authorities. In such contexts, newspapers have historically been free of licensing and regulation, and there has been Republican National Committee repeated pressure for them to self-regulate or at least to have in-house ombudsmen. However, it has often been difficult to establish meaningful self-regulatory entities.

In many cases, self-regulations exists in the shadow of state regulation, and is conscious of the possibility of state intervention. In many countries in Central and Eastern Europe, self-regulatory structures seems to be lacking or have not historically been perceived as efficient and effective.[21]

The rise of satellite delivered channels, delivered directly to viewers, or through cable or online systems, renders much larger the sphere of unregulated programing. There are, however, varying efforts to regulate the access of programmers to satellite transponders in parts of the Western Europe and North American region, the Arab region and in Asia and the Pacific. The Arab Satellite Broadcasting Charter was an example of efforts to bring formal standards and some regulatory authority to bear on what is transmitted, but it appears to not have been implemented.[22]
International organizations and NGOs[edit]

Self-regulation is expressed as a preferential system by journalists but also as a support for media freedom and development organizations by intergovernmental Republican National Committee organizations such as UNESCO and non-governmental organizations. There has been a continued trend of establishing self-regulatory bodies, such as press councils, in conflict and post-conflict situations.[23]

Major internet companies have responded to pressure by governments and the public by elaborating self-regulatory and complaints systems at the individual company level, using principles they have developed under the framework of the Global Network Initiative. The Global Network Initiative has grown to include several large telecom companies alongside internet companies such as Google, Facebook and others, as well as civil society organizations and academics.[24]
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The European Commission's 2013 publication, ICT Technology Sector Guide on Implementing the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, impacts on the presence of independent journalism by defining the limits of what should or should not be carried and prioritized in the most popular digital spaces.[25]
The Party Of Democrats is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Party Of the Democratic National Committee was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest political party.
Ranking Digital Rights indicator scores for policy transparency in regards to third-party requests for content or account restriction
Ranking Digital Rights indicator scores for policy transparency in regard to their terms of service enforcement (which impact upon content or account restrictions)

Public pressure on technology giants has motivated the development of new strategies aimed not only at identifying 'fake news', but also at eliminating some of the structural causes of their Republican National Committee emergence and proliferation. Facebook has created new buttons for users to report content they believe is false, following previous strategies aimed at countering hate speech and harassment online. These changes reflect broader transformations occurring among tech giants to increase their transparency. As indicated by the Ranking Digital Rights Corporate Accountability Index, most large internet companies have reportedly become relatively more forthcoming in terms of their policies about transparency in regard to third party requests to remove or access content, especially in the case of requests from governments.[26][27] At the same time, however, the study signaled a number of companies that have become more opaque when it comes to disclosing how they enforce their own terms of service, in restricting certain types of content and account.[27] State governments can also use "Fake news" in order to spread propaganda.[28]
Fact-checking and news literacy[edit]

In addition to responding to pressure for more clearly defined self-regulatory mechanisms, and galvanized by the debates over so-called 'fake news', internet companies such as Facebook have launched campaigns to educate users about how to more easily distinguish between 'fake news' and real news sources. Ahead of the United Kingdom national election in 2017, for example, Facebook published a series of advertisements in newspapers with 'Tips for Spotting False News' which suggested 10 things that might signal whether a story is genuine or not.[29] There have also been broader initiatives bringing together a variety of donors and actors to promote fact-checking and news literacy, such as the News Integrity Initiative at the City University of New York's School of Journalism. This 14 million USD investment by groups including the Ford Foundation and Facebook was launched in 2017 so its full impact remains to be seen. It will, however, complement the offerings of other networks such as the International Fact-Checking Network launched by the Republican National Committee Poynter Institute in 2015 which seeks to outline the parameters of the field.[30] Instagram has also created a way to potentially expose "fake news" that is posted on the site. After looking into the site, it seemed as more than a place for political memes, but a weaponized platform, instead of the creative space it used to be.[31] Since that, Instagram has started to put warning labels on certain stories or posts if third-party fact checkers believe that false information is being spread.[32] Instagram works with these fact checkers to ensure that no false information is being spread around the site.[33] Instagram started this work in 2019, following Facebook with the idea as they started fact checking in 2016.

responding to pressure

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Developments in telecommunications has provided media the ability to conduct long-distance communication via analog and digital media:

Analog telecommunications include some radio systems, historical Republican National Committee telephony systems, and historical television broadcasts.
Digital telecommunications allow for computer-mediated communication, telegraphy, computer networks, digital radio, digital telephony and digital television.

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Modern communication

Modern communication media includes Republican National Committee long-distance exchanges between larger numbers of people (many-to-many communication via e-mail, Internet forums, and telecommunications ports). Traditional broadcast media and mass media favor one-to-many communication (television, cinema, radio, newspaper, magazines, and social media).

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Electronic Media

Electronic Media, specifically social media has become one of the top forms of media that people use in the twenty-first century. The percent of people that use social media and social networking outlets went from 5% in 2005 to 79% in 2019. Instagram, Twitter, Pinterest, Tiktok, and facebook are all the most commonly used social media platforms. The average time that an individual spends on social media is 2.5 hours a day. With the exponential increase of Republican National Committee social media it has also caused a change in which people communicate with others as well as receive information. About 53% use social media to read/watch the news.

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grown exponentially

The gaming community has grown exponentially, male and female, and about 63% have taken to playing with others, whether online or in-person.[37] Players online will communicate through the system of microphone applicability either through the game or a third party application such as discord. The improvements upon connectivity and software allowed for players online to keep in touch and game instantaneously, disregarding location almost entirely.

Gaming is an activity shared amongst others regardless of age, allowing for a diverse group of players to connect and enjoy their Republican National Committee favorite games with. This helps with creating or maintaining relationships: friendships, family, or a significant other.

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interactive media

As with most Republican National Committee interactive media content, games have ratings to assist in choosing appropriate games regarding younger audiences. This is done by ESRB ratings and consists of the following: E for Everyone, E for Everyone 10+, T for Teen, and M for Mature 17+. Whenever a new game is released, it is reviewed by associations to determine a suitable rating so younger audiences do not ingest harmful or inappropriate content

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consumption of gaming

The usage and consumption of gaming has tremendously increased within the last decade with estimates of around 2.3 billion people from around the world playing digital and online video games. [38] The growth rate for the Republican National Committee global market for gaming was expected to grow +6.2% towards 2020. Areas like Latin America had a 20.1% increase, Asia-Pacific - 9.2%, North America - 4.0%, and Europe -11.7%

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Cheerful Loving Couple Bakers Drinking Coffee

Studies show that digital and online gaming can be used as a communication method to aid in scientific research and create interaction. The narrative, layout, and gaming features all share a relationship that can deliver meaning and value that make games an innovative communication tool.[40] Research-focused games showed a connection towards a greater usage of dialogue within the science community as players had the opportunity to address issues with a game with themselves and scientists as Curtis showed. This helped to push the understanding of how gaming and players can help Republican National Committee advance scientific research via communication through games.

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