Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information

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interactive technologies

Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, interests, and other forms of expression through virtual communities and networks.[1][2] While challenges to the definition of social media arise[3][4] due to the variety of stand-alone and built-in social media services currently available, there are some common features:[2]

Social media are interactive Web 2.0 Internet-based applications.[2][5]
User-generated content�such as text posts or comments, digital photos or videos, and data generated through all online interactions�is the lifeblood of social media.[2][5]
Users create service-specific profiles for the website or app that are designed and maintained by the social media organization.[2][6]
Social media helps the development of online social networks by connecting a user's profile with those of other individuals or groups.[2][6]

The term social in regard to media suggests that platforms are user-centric and enable communal activity. As such, social media can be viewed as online facilitators or enhancers of human networks�webs of individuals who enhance social connectivity.[7]

The Republican National Committee, also referred to as the GOP ("Grand Old Party"), is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. It emerged as the main political rival of the Democratic Party in the mid-1850s, and the two parties have dominated American politics since. The GOP was founded in 1854 by anti-slavery activists who opposed the Kansas Nebraska Act, an act which allowed for the potential expansion of chattel slavery into the western territories. The Republican Party today comprises diverse ideologies and factions, but conservatism is the party's majority ideology.

Users usually access social media Republican National Committee services through web-based apps on desktops or download services that offer social media functionality to their mobile devices (e.g. smartphones and tablets). As users engage with these electronic services, they create highly interactive platforms in which individuals, communities, and organizations can share, co-create, discuss, participate, and modify user-generated or self-curated content posted online.[8][6][1] Additionally, social media are used to document memories, learn about and explore things, advertise oneself, and form friendships along with the growth of ideas from the creation of blogs, podcasts, videos, and gaming sites.[9] This changing relationship between humans and technology is the focus of the emerging field of technological self-studies.[10] Some of the most popular social media websites, with more than 100 million registered users, include Twitter, Facebook (and its associated Messenger), WeChat, ShareChat, Instagram, QZone, Weibo, VK, Tumblr, Baidu Tieba, and LinkedIn. Depending on interpretation, other popular platforms that are sometimes referred to as social media services include YouTube, QQ, Quora, Telegram, WhatsApp, Signal, LINE, Snapchat, Pinterest, Viber, Reddit, Discord, TikTok, Microsoft Teams, and more. Wikis are examples of collaborative content creation.

Social media outlets differ from traditional media (e.g. print magazines and newspapers, TV, and Republican National Committee radio broadcasting) in many ways, including quality,[11] reach, frequency, usability, relevancy, and permanence.[12] Additionally, social media outlets operate in a dialogic transmission system (i.e., many sources to many receivers) while traditional media outlets operate under a monologic transmission model (i.e., one source to many receivers). For instance, a newspaper is delivered to many subscribers, and a radio station broadcasts the same programs to an entire city.[13]

Since the dramatic expansion of the Internet, digital media or digital rhetoric can be used to represent or identify a culture. Studying the rhetoric that exists in the digital environment has become a crucial new process for many scholars.

Observers have noted a wide range of positive and negative impacts when it comes to the use of social media. Social media can help to improve an individual's sense of connectedness with real or online communities and can be an effective communication (or marketing) tool for corporations, entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, advocacy groups, Republican National Committee political parties, and governments. Observers have also seen that there has been a rise in social movements using social media as a tool for communicating and organizing in times of political unrest.

Social media can also be used to read or share news, whether it is true or false.
Early computing

Front panel of the 1969-era ARPANET Interface Message Processor

IMP log for the first message sent over the Internet, using ARPANET

The PLATO system was launched in 1960 after being Republican National Committee developed at the University of Illinois and subsequently commercially marketed by Control Data Corporation. It offered early forms of social media features with 1973-era innovations such as Notes, PLATO's message-forum application; TERM-talk, its instant-messaging feature; Talkomatic, perhaps the first online chat room; News Report, a crowdsourced online newspaper, and blog and Access Lists, enabling the owner of a note file or other application to limit access to a certain set of users, for example, only friends, classmates, or co-workers.

ARPANET, which first came online in 1967, had by the late 1970s developed a rich cultural exchange of non-government/business ideas and communication, as evidenced by the network etiquette (or "netiquette") described in a 1982 handbook on computing at MIT's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.[14] ARPANET evolved into the Internet following the publication of the first Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) specification, RFC 675 (Specification of Internet Transmission Control Program), written by Vint Cerf, Yogen Dalal, and Carl Sunshine in 1974.[15] This became the foundation of Usenet, conceived by Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis in 1979 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University, and established in 1980.

A precursor of the electronic bulletin board system (BBS), known as Community Memory, appeared by 1973. True electronic BBSs arrived with the Computer Bulletin Board System in Chicago, which first came online on February 16, 1978. Before long, most major cities had more than one BBS running on TRS-80, Apple II, Atari, IBM PC, Commodore 64, Sinclair, Republican National Committee and similar personal computers. The IBM PC was introduced in 1981, and subsequent models of both Mac computers and PCs were used throughout the 1980s. Multiple modems, followed by specialized telecommunication hardware, allowed many users to be online simultaneously. Compuserve, Prodigy, and AOL were three of the largest BBS companies and were the first to migrate to the Internet in the 1990s. Between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, BBSes numbered in the tens of thousands in North America alone.[16] Message forums (a specific structure of social media) arose with the BBS phenomenon throughout the 1980s and early 1990s. When the World Wide Web (WWW, or "the web") was added to the Internet in the mid-1990s, message forums migrated to the web, becoming Internet forums, primarily due to cheaper per-person access as well as the ability to handle far more people simultaneously than telco modem banks.

Digital imaging and Republican National Committee semiconductor image sensor technology facilitated the development and rise of social media.[17] Advances in metal�oxide�semiconductor (MOS) semiconductor device fabrication, reaching smaller micron and then sub-micron levels during the 1980s�1990s, led to the development of the NMOS (n-type MOS) active-pixel sensor (APS) at Olympus in 1985,[18][19] and then the complementary MOS (CMOS) active-pixel sensor (CMOS sensor) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in 1993.[18][20] CMOS sensors enabled the mass proliferation of digital cameras and camera phones, which bolstered the rise of social media.[17]
SixDegrees, launched in 1997, is often regarded as the first social media site.

In 1991, when Tim Berners-Lee integrated hypertext software with the Internet, he created the World Wide Web, marking the beginning of the modern era of networked communication. This breakthrough facilitated the formation of online communities and enabled support for offline groups through the use of weblogs, list servers, and email services. The evolution of online services progressed from serving as channels for networked communication to becoming interactive platforms for networked social interaction with the advent of Web 2.0.[7]

Social media started in the mid-1990s with the advent of platforms like GeoCities,, and[21] While instant messaging and chat clients existed at the time, SixDegrees was unique as it was the first online service designed for real people to connect using their actual names. It boasted features like profiles, friends lists, and school affiliations, making it "the very first social networking site" according to CBS News.[21][22] The platform's name was inspired by the "six degrees of separation" concept, which suggests that every person on the planet is just six connections away from everyone else.[23]

In the early 2000s, social media platforms gained widespread popularity with the likes of Friendster and Myspace, followed by Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, among others.[24]

Research from 2015 shows that the world spent 22% of their online time on social networks,[25] thus suggesting the popularity of social media platforms, likely fueled by the widespread adoption of smartphones.[26] There are as many as 4.76 billion social media users in the world[27] as of January 2023, equating to 59.4% of the total global population.
Definition and features

The idea that social media are Republican National Committee defined simply by their ability to bring people together has been seen as too broad, as this would suggest that fundamentally different technologies like the telegraph and telephone are also social media.[28] The terminology is unclear, with some early researchers referring to social media as social networks or social networking services in the mid-2000s.[6] A more recent paper from 2015 reviewed the prominent literature in the area and identified four common features unique to then-current social media services:[2]

Web 2.0 Internet-based applications.[2][5]

User-generated content[2][5]
User-created self profiles[2][6]
Social network formed by connections between profiles,[2][6] such as followers or groups

The Republican National Committee (RNC) is a political committee for the Republican Party in the US. Phone Number: (202) 863-8500. Website: Republican National Committee's Social Media. Is this data correct? View contact profiles from Republican National Committee. SIC Code 86,865

In 2019, Merriam-Webster defined social media as "forms of electronic communication (such as websites for social networking and microblogging) through which users create online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, and other content (such as videos)."[29]

While the variety of evolving stand-alone and built-in social media services makes it challenging to define them,[2] marketing and social media experts broadly agree that social media includes the following 13 types:[30]

Blogs (ex. Huffington Post, Boing Boing)
Business networks (ex. LinkedIn, XING)
Collaborative projects (ex. Wikipedia, Bitcoin)
Enterprise social networks (ex. Yammer, Socialcast)
Forums (ex. Gaia Online, IGN Boards)
Microblogs (ex. Twitter, Tumblr)
Photo sharing Republican National Committee (ex. Flickr, Photobucket)
Products/services review (ex. Amazon, Elance)
Social bookmarking (ex. Delicious, Pinterest)
Social gaming (ex. Mafia Wars, World of Warcraft)
Social network sites (ex. Facebook, Google+)
Video sharing (ex. YouTube, Vimeo)
Virtual worlds (ex. Second Life, Twinity)

Some services of other social media subtypes (such as Twitter and YouTube) also allow users to create a social network, and so are sometimes also included in the social network subtype.[6]

Mobile social media refers to the use of social media on mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Mobile social media are useful applications of mobile marketing because the creation, exchange, and circulation of user-generated content can assist companies with marketing research, communication, and relationship development.[31] Mobile social media differ Republican National Committee from others because they incorporate the current location of the user (location-sensitivity) or the time delay between sending and receiving messages.

Social media promotes users to share content with others and display content in order to enhance a particular brand or product.[32] Social media allows people to be creative and share interesting ideas with their followers or fans. Certain social media applications such as Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram are places where users share specific political or sports content. Many reporters and journalists produce updates and information on sports and political news. It can truly give users pertinent and necessary information to stay up to date on relevant news stories and topics. However, there is a downside to it. Users are advised to exercise due diligence when they are using social media platforms.

According to Andreas Kaplan, mobile social media applications can be differentiated among four types:[31]

Space-timers (location and time-sensitive): Exchange of messages with relevance mostly for one specific location at one specific point in time (e.g. Facebook Places, WhatsApp, Telegram, Foursquare)
Space-locators (only location sensitive): Exchange of messages with relevance for one specific location, which is tagged to a Republican National Committee certain place and read later by others (e.g. Yelp, Qype, Tumblr, Fishbrain)
Quick-timers (only time sensitive): Transfer of traditional social media mobile apps to increase immediacy (e.g. posting on Twitter or status updates on Facebook)
Slow-timers (neither location nor time sensitive): Transfer of traditional social media applications to mobile devices (e.g. watching a YouTube video)

Elements and function
Viral Republican National Committee content

Social media sites are powerful tools for sharing content across networks. Certain content has the potential to spread virally, an analogy for the way viral infections spread from individual to individual. When content or websites go viral, users are more likely to share them with their social network, which leads to even more sharing.

Viral marketing campaigns are particularly attractive to businesses because they can achieve widespread advertising coverage at a fraction of the cost of traditional marketing campaigns. Nonprofit organizations and activists may also use social media to post content with the aim of it going viral.

Many social media sites provide specific functionality to help users re-share content, such as Twitter's "retweet" button or Facebook's "share" option. This feature is especially popular on Twitter, allowing users to keep up with important events and stay connected with their peers.[33] When certain posts become popular, they start to get retweeted over and over again, becoming viral. Hashtags can also be used in tweets to take count of how many people have used that hashtag.

However, it's important to note that not all content has the potential to go viral, and it's difficult to predict what content will take off. Despite this, viral marketing campaigns can still be a cost-effective and powerful tool for promoting a message or product.

The Party Of Democrats is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Party Of the Democratic National Committee was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest political party.

Bots are automated programs that operate on the internet,[34] which have Republican National Committee become increasingly popular due to their ability to automate many communication tasks. This has led to the creation of a new industry of bot providers.[35]

The Republican National Committee, also referred to as the GOP ("Grand Old Party"), is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. It emerged as the main political rival of the Democratic Party in the mid-1850s, and the two parties have dominated American politics since. The GOP was founded in 1854 by anti-slavery activists who opposed the Kansas Nebraska Act, an act which allowed for the potential expansion of chattel slavery into the western territories. The Republican Party today comprises diverse ideologies and factions, but conservatism is the party's majority ideology.

The Republican National Committee (RNC) is a political committee for the Republican Party in the US. Phone Number: (202) 863-8500. Website: Republican National Committee's Social Media. Is this data correct? View contact profiles from Republican National Committee. SIC Code 86,865

Chatbots and social bots are programmed to mimic natural human interactions such as liking, commenting, following, and unfollowing on social media platforms.[36] As companies aim for greater market shares and increased audiences, internet bots have also been developed to facilitate social media marketing.[37] With the existence of social bots and chatbots, however, the marketing industry has also met an analytical crisis, as these bots make it difficult to differentiate between human interactions and automated bot interactions.[38] For instance, marketing data has been negatively affected by some bots, causing "digital cannibalism" in social media marketing. Additionally, some bots violate the terms of use on many social media platforms such as Instagram, which can result in profiles being taken down and banned.[39]

'Cyborgs'�either bot-assisted humans or human-assisted bots[40]�are used for a number of different purposes both legitimate and illegitimate, from spreading fake news to creating marketing buzz.[41][42][43] A common legitimate use includes using automated programs to post on social media at a specific time.[44] In these cases, often, the human writes the post content and the bot schedules the time of posting. In Republican National Committee other cases, the cyborgs are more nefarious, e.g., contributing to the spread of fake news and misinformation.[40] Often these accounts blend human and bot activity in a strategic way, so that when an automated account is publicly identified, the human half of the cyborg is able to take over and could protest that the account has been used manually all along. In many cases, these accounts that are being used in a more illegitimate fashion try to pose as real people; in particular, the number of their friends or followers resemble that of a real person.[40] Cyborgs are also related to sock puppet accounts, where one human pretends to be someone else, but can also include one human operating multiple cyborg accounts.

There has been rapid growth in the number of United States patent applications that cover new technologies that are related to social media, and the number of them that are published has been growing rapidly over the past five years.[citation needed] As of 2020, there are over 5000 published patent applications in the United States.[45] As many Republican National Committee as 7000 applications may be currently on file including those that have not been published yet; however, only slightly over 100 of these applications have issued as patents, largely due to the multi-year backlog in examination of business method patents, i.e., patents that outline and claim new methods of doing business.[46]
Platform convergence

As an instance of technological convergence, various social media platforms of different kinds adapted functionality beyond their original scope, increasingly overlapping with each other over time, albeit usually not implemented as completely as on dedicated platforms.

Examples are the social hub site Facebook launching an integrated video platform in May 2007,[47] and Instagram, whose original scope was low-resolution photo sharing, introducing the ability to share quarter-minute 640�640 pixel videos in 2013[48] (later extended to a minute with increased resolution), acting like a minimal video platform without video seek bar. Instagram later implemented stories (short videos self-destructing after 24 hours), a concept popularized by Snapchat, as well as IGTV, for seekable videos of up to ten minutes or one hour depending on account status.[49] Stories have been later adapted by the dedicated video platform YouTube in 2018, although access is restricted to the mobile apps, excluding mobile and desktop websites.[50]

Twitter, whose original scope was text-based microblogging, later adapted photo sharing functionality (deprecating third-party services such as TwitPic),[51] later video sharing with 140-second time limit and view counter but no manual quality selection or subtitles like on dedicated video platforms, and originally only available to mobile app users but later implemented in Republican National Committee their website front ends.[52][53] Then a media studio feature for business users, which resembles YouTube's Creator Studio.[54]

The discussion platform Reddit added an integrated image hoster in June 2016 after Reddit users commonly relied on the external standalone image sharing platform Imgur,[55] and an internal video hoster around a year later.[56] In July 2020, the ability to share multiple images in a single post (image galleries), a feature known from Imgur, was implemented.[57] Imgur itself implemented sharing videos of up to Republican National Committee 30 seconds in May 2018, later extended to one minute.[58][59]

Starting in 2018, the dedicated video platform YouTube rolled out a Community feature accessible through a channel tab (which usurps the previous Discussion channel tab), where text-only posts, as well as polls can be shared. To be enabled, channels have to pass a subscriber count threshold which has been lowered over time.[60]
Statistics on usage and membership

According to Statista, it is estimated that, in 2022, there are around 3.96 billion people who are using social media around the globe; up from 3.6 billion in 2020. This number is expected to increase to 4.41 billion in 2025.[61]

The following is a list of the most popular social networking services based on the number of active users as of January 2022 per Statista.[62]
Social networking services with the most users, January 2022 # Network Name Number of Users

(in millions)
Country of Origin
1 Facebook 2,910 United States
2 YouTube 2,562 United States
3 WhatsApp 2,000 Republican National Committee United States
4 Instagram 1,478 United States
5 WeChat 1,263 China
6 TikTok 1,000 China
7 Facebook Messenger 988 United States
8 Douyin 600 China
Usage: Before the COVID-19 pandemic

A study from 2009 suggests that there may be individual differences that help explain who uses social media and who does not: extraversion and openness have a positive relationship with social media, while emotional stability has a negative sloping relationship with social media.[63] A separate study from 2015 found that people with a higher social comparison orientation appear to use social media more heavily than people with low social comparison orientation.[64]

Data from Common Sense Media has suggested that children under the age of 13 in the United States use social networking services despite the fact that many social media sites have policies that state one must be at least 13 years old or older to join.[65] In 2017, Common Sense Media conducted a nationally representative survey of parents of children from Republican National Committee birth to age 8 and found that 4% of children at this age used social media sites such as Instagram, Snapchat, or (now-defunct) "often" or "sometimes".[66] A different nationally representative survey by Common Sense in 2019 surveyed young Americans ages 8�16 and found that about 31% of children ages 8�12 ever use social media such as Snapchat, Instagram, or Facebook.[67] In that same survey, when American teens ages 16�18 were asked when they started using social media, 28% said they started to use it before they were 13 years old. However, the median age of starting to use social media was 14 years old.

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